I.1 龙虾和领地




    这个带来了一个问题,因为有太多的他们(龙虾)了.如果两只龙虾在同一时间,同一地点,都想占据同一个领地,在那生活下去呢,哪会发生什么事情呢?如果有上百只龙虾想在同一块拥挤的沙堆/生活废品堆积的地方(in the same crowded patch of sand and refuse),生活下去和哺育儿女,哪又会发生什么呢.

    其它的动物也有这个问题.当鸣禽们[songbird](善于鸣叫的鸟类)春天飞到北方,他们之间会进行激烈的领地争夺.他们的声音对我们来说是美妙的歌声,却是塞壬的呼唤和失败的控诉.(塞壬-古希腊传说中半人半鸟的女海妖,惯以美妙的歌声引诱水手,使他们的船只或触礁或驶入危险水域)(原句:The songs they sing, so peaceful and beautiful to human ears, are siren calls and cries of domination.)一只聪慧的鸣禽是一位宣称自己拥有主权的小战士.以鹪鹩为例,一种小却常以小击大[feisty]的吃虫类鸣禽,常见于北美洲.一个刚到的鹪鹩需要一个免于风吹雨打的地方来搭建巢穴.他需要这个地方靠近食物以及吸引潜在的伴侣.他还要说服竞争者远离巢穴,保持距离.


    If you are like most people, you don't often think about lobsters --unless you’re eating one. However, these interesting and delicious crustaceans are very much worth considering. Their nervous systems are comparatively simple, with large, easily observable neurons, the magic cells of the brain. Because of this, scientists have been able to map the neural circuitry of lobsters very accurately. This has helped us understand the structure and function of the brain and behaviour of more complex animals, including human beings. Lobsters have more in common with you than you might think (particularly when you are feeling crabby—ha ha).

    Lobsters live on the ocean floor. They need a home base down there, a range within which they hunt for prey and scavenge around for stray edible bits and pieces of whatever rains down from the continual chaos of carnage and death far above. They want somewhere secure, where the hunting and the gathering is good. They want a home.

    This can present a problem, since there are many lobsters. What if two of them occupy the same territory, at the bottom of the ocean, at the same time, and both want to live there? What if there are hundreds of lobsters, all trying to make a living and raise a family, in the same crowded patch of sand and refuse?

    Other creatures have this problem, too. When songbirds come north in the spring, for example, they engage in ferocious territorial disputes. The songs they sing, so peaceful and beautiful to human ears, are siren calls and cries of domination. A brilliantly musical bird is a small warrior proclaiming his sovereignty. Take the wren, for example, a small, feisty, insect-eating songbird common in North America. A newly arrived wren wants a sheltered place to build a nest, away from the wind and rain. He wants it close to food, and attractive to potential mates. He also wants to convince competitors for that space to keep their distance.

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