2019四级真题

这是最新的真题,评测下午出。

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Resilience Is About How You Recharge, Not How You Endure

[A] As constant travelers and parents of a 2-year-old, we sometimes fantasize about how much work we can do when one of us gets on a plane, undistracted by phones, friends, or movies. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done. Even worse, after refreshing our email or reading the same studies over and over, we are too exhausted when we land to soldier on with (继续处理) the emails that have inevitably still piled up.

[B] Why should flying deplete us? We’re just sitting there doing nothing. Why can’t we be tougher, more resilient (有复原力的) and determined in our work so we can accomplish all of the goals we set for ourselves? Based on our current research, we have come to realize that the problem is not our hectic schedule or the plane travel itself; the problem comes from a misconception of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.

[C] We often take a militaristic, “tough” approach to resilience and determination like a Marine pulling himself through the mud, a boxer going one more round, or a football player picking himself up off the ground for one more play. We believe that the longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. However, this entire conception is scientifically inaccurate.

[D] The very lack of a recovery period is dramatically holding back our collective ability to be resilient and successful. Research has  found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems. And lack of recovery—whether by disrupting sleep with thoughts of work or having continuous cognitive arousal by watching our phones—is costing our companies $62 billion a year in lost productivity.

[E] And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering. We “stop” work sometimes at 5pm, but then we spend the night wrestling with solutions to work problems, talking about our work over dinner, and falling asleep thinking about how much work we’ll do tomorrow. In a study just released, researchers from Norway found that 7.8% of Norwegians have become workaholics(工作狂). The scientists cite a definition of “workaholism” as “being overly concerned about work, driven by an uncontrollable work motivation, and investing so much time and effort in work that it impairs other important life areas.”

[F] We believe that the number of people who fit that definition includes the majority of American workers, which prompted us to begin a study of workaholism in the U.S. Our study will use a large corporate dataset from a major medical company to examine how technology extends our working hours and thus interferes with necessary cognitive recovery, resulting in huge health care costs and turnover costs for employers.

[G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age. Parents trying to teach their children resilience might celebrate a high school student staying up until 3am to finish a science fair project. What a distortion of resilience! A resilient child is a well-rested one. When an exhausted student goes to school, he risks hurting everyone on the road with his impaired driving; he doesn’t have the cognitive resources to do well on his English test; he has lower self-control with his friends; and at home, he is moody with his parents. Overwork and exhaustion are the opposite of resilience and the bad habits we acquire when we’re young only magnify when we hit the workforce.

[H] As Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz have written, if you have too much time in the performance zone, you need more time in the recovery zone, otherwise you risk burnout. Gathering your resources to “try hard” requires burning energy in order to overcome your currently low arousal level. It also worsens exhaustion. Thus the more imbalanced we become due to overworking, the more value there is in activities that allow us to return to a state of balance. The value of a recovery period rises in proportion to the amount of work required of us.

[I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that if you stop doing a task like answering emails or writing a paper, your brain will naturally recover, so that when you start again later in the day or the next morning, you’ll have your energy back. But surely everyone reading this has had times when you lie in bed for hours, unable to fall asleep because your brain is thinking about work. If you lie in bed for eight hours, you may have rested, but you can still feel exhausted the next day. That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing.

[J] If you’re trying to build resilience at work, you need adequate internal and external recovery periods. As researchers Zijlstra, Cropley and Rydstedt write in their 2014 paper: “Internal recovery refers to the shorter periods of relaxation that take place within the frames of the work day or the work setting in the form of short scheduled or unscheduled breaks, by shifting attention or changing to other work tasks when the mental or physical resources required for the initial task are temporarily depleted or exhausted. External recovery refers to actions that take place outside of work—e.g. in the free time between the work days, and during weekends, holidays or vacations.” If after work you lie around on your bed and get irritated by political commentary on your phone or get stressed thinking about decisions about how to renovate your home, your brain has not received a break from high mental arousal states. Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.

[K] If you really want to build resilience, you can start by strategically stopping. Give yourself the resources to be tough by creating internal and external recovery periods. Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking. She suggests downloading the Instant or Moment apps to see how many times you turn on your phone each day. You can also use apps like Offtime or Unplugged to create tech free zones by strategically scheduling automatic airplane modes. The average person turns on their phone 150 times every day. If every distraction took only 1 minute, that would account for 2.5 hours a day.

[L] In addition, you can take a cognitive break every 90 minutes to charge your batteries. Try to not have lunch at your desk, but instead spend time outside or with your friends—not talking about work. Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.

[M] As for us, we’ve started using our plane time as a work-free zone, and thus time to dip into the recovery phase. The results have been fantastic. We are usually tired already by the time we get on a plane, and the crowded space and unstable internet connection make work more challenging. Now, instead of swimming upstream, we relax, sleep, watch movies, or listen to music. And when we get off the plane, instead of being depleted, we feel recovered and ready to return to the performance zone.

36. It has been found that inadequate recovery often leads to poor health and accidents.

37. Mental relaxation is much needed, just as physical relaxation is.

38. Adequate rest not only helps one recover, but also increases one’s work efficiency.

39. The author always has a hectic time before taking a flight.

40. Recovery may not take place even if one seems to have stopped working.

41. It is advised that technology be used to prevent people from overworking.

42. Contrary to popular belief, rest does not equal recovery.

43. The author has come to see that his problem results from a misunderstanding of the meaning of resilience.

44. People’s distorted view about resilience may have developed from their upbringing.

45. People tend to think the more determined they are, the greater their success will be.










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